“Off” time in Parkinson’s disease (PD) can keep you from moving the way you want to.

You can have “off” time when your PD medications start to wear off.

Actor Portrayals

“Off” time is when Parkinson’s symptoms return
between medication doses.

"Icon showing two filled-in people and two transparent people, showing that half of people treated for PD begin to experience “off” time by year 5" about-off-time Icon showing two filled-in people and two transparent people, indicating that half of people treated for PD begin to experience “off” time by year 5

Within 5 years of starting levodopa/carbidopa, half of people living with PD begin to
experience “off” time, including problems with

As PD progresses, you may have more “off” time

There are many signs of “off” time, including:

  • Tremor
  • Difficulty walking
  • Slowness
  • Stiffness
  • Partial or total inability to move
"Icon of a conversation over the phone" about-off-time Icon of a conversation over the phone

Think you’re having “off” time? Track your symptoms with the Doctor Discussion Guide and talk to your doctor to discuss options.

Download the Doctor
Discussion Guide

Adenosine and dopamine are naturally occurring
chemicals in the brain that help control movement.

Typically, both adenosine and dopamine work together in balance to help you move the way you want to. But in PD,
that’s not the case.

There’s more to think about than just dopamine.

about-off-time Global Icon of a triangle with a circle around it indicating a play button for videos

See how NOURIANZ helps lift the
brake of adenosine.


In PD, there is too little dopamine activity
and too much adenosine activity

This imbalance causes symptoms
such as difficulty in moving.

Many treatments for PD such as levodopa/carbidopa focus on increasing dopamine. But over time, PD symptoms can return, and people may experience “off” time.



NOURIANZ is a prescription medicine used with levodopa and carbidopa to treat adults with Parkinson’s disease (PD) who are having “off” episodes. It is not known if NOURIANZ is safe and effective in children.

Important Safety Information

Before you take NOURIANZ, tell your healthcare provider about all your medical conditions, including if you:

  • have a history of abnormal movement (dyskinesia)
  • have reduced liver function
  • smoke cigarettes
  • are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. NOURIANZ may harm your unborn baby
  • are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if NOURIANZ passes into breast milk. You and your healthcare provider should decide if you will take NOURIANZ or breastfeed

Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.

NOURIANZ and other medicines may affect each other causing side effects. NOURIANZ may affect the way other medicines work, and other medicines may affect how NOURIANZ works.

What are the possible side effects of NOURIANZ?
NOURIANZ may cause serious side effects, including:

  • uncontrolled sudden movements (dyskinesia). Uncontrolled sudden movements is one of the most common side effects.
  • hallucinations and other symptoms of psychosis. NOURIANZ can cause abnormal thinking and behavior, including:
    • being overly suspicious or feeling people want to harm you (paranoid ideation)
    • believing things that are not real (delusions)
    • seeing or hearing things that are not real (hallucinations)
    • confusion
    • increased activity or talking (mania)
    • disorientation
    • aggressive behavior
    • agitation
    • delirium (decreased awareness of things around you)
  • unusual urges (impulse control or compulsive behaviors). Some people taking NOURIANZ get urges to behave in a way unusual for them. Examples of this are unusual urges to gamble, increased sexual urges, strong urges to spend money, binge eating, and the inability to control these urges.

If you notice or your family notices that you are developing any new or unusual symptoms or behaviors, talk to your healthcare provider.

The most common side effects of NOURIANZ include uncontrolled movements (dyskinesia), dizziness, constipation, nausea, hallucinations, and problems sleeping (insomnia).

These are not all the possible side effects of NOURIANZ.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

Please see Patient Information for NOURIANZ.